From the high, snowcapped slopes of the Cordillera Real and the Apolobamba range, the descent to the eastern plains is extremely precipitous, plunging through a rainy and heavily forested belt of rugged terrain known as the Yungas—an Aymara word roughly translated as “Warm Lands” or “Warm Valleys.” The Yungas form the southern end of a region that extends along the eastern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (where it is called the Alto Selva [“High Rainforest”]) and continues southeast through Bolivia as far as Santa Cruz. Bolivia has a small Jewish community. Bolivia shares Lake Titicaca, the second largest lake in South America (after Lake Maracaibo), with Peru. In the middle of the Altiplano are the Titicaca and Poopó lakes and basins, which traditionally have been important agricultural, economic, and cultural areas. Spanish and 36 indigenous languages are official in Bolivia per the 2009 constitution. Terraced fields built hundreds of years ago lie at the foothills of snow-covered peaks, which have been sacred to the Indians since ancient times. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. By 2006 Pres. Although only one-third of its territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Distinguished Professor of International Studies and History, University of South Florida, Tampa. For example, in the mining cities of Potosí and Oruro, tens of thousands of Bolivians and foreign tourists celebrate Carnival by paying homage to the Virgin of the Mines and to Pachamama. In 1985, however, the government of Pres. Some characteristics of pantheistic pre-Columbian religion have survived in the Indian communities of the Altiplano, especially the worship of Pachamama, the goddess of the Earth. Bolivia, country of west-central South America. The Oriente includes much of the northern departments of Beni and Pando, where the low plains are covered by savanna and, in the far north, by expanses of tropical rainforest. Bolivia - Bolivia - Languages and religion: Spanish and 36 indigenous languages are official in Bolivia per the 2009 constitution. The vaccine supplies to Bolivia will be facilitated by international partners of RDIF in India, China, South Korea and other countries. In southern Bolivia the Andes become much wider and are formed by a high, tilted block called the Puna, with west-facing escarpments and more gentle eastward slopes down to the plains. Most workers at the cooperatives, however, continued to labour under extremely difficult conditions and often lacked social benefits. Among the country’s most valuable assets are its mineral deposits, hydrocarbons (petroleum and natural gas), and its renewable natural resources, such as agricultural and forest products, especially soybeans and Brazil nuts. Lake Titicaca, one famous natural feature of Bolivia, is the highest lake in the world that is deep enough for sailing a boat. The Hot Spot The New Religion. Until the late 20th century, Bolivian tin and silver were extracted mostly by large shaft-mining operations, often performed in difficult, remote sections of the eastern cordilleras and at high elevations. The country has been landlocked since it lost its Pacific coast territory to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–84), but agreements with neighbouring countries have granted it indirect access to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Omissions? In addition, an increasing world demand for lithium (used in batteries for high-tech devices) brought renewed attention to the large reserves of untapped lithium in Bolivia; huge deposits lie beneath the Uyuni Salt Flat in the southwestern part of the country. Also worshiped is the sun god, legendary creator of the first Inca emperor Manco Capac and his sister-wife Mama Ocllo on the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca. As a consequence denial of the events and facts would be difficult. During the rainy season it becomes a veritable swamp, but it is a hot semidesert during the remaining seven or eight months of the year. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. There are many different religions, but the most popular is Christianity, followed by an estimated 33% of people, and Islam, which is practiced by over 24% of people. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The government, attempting to satisfy the new labour unions, did not reduce the surplus number of miners, nor did it promote greater efficiency in many other sectors of the economy. The ARDA provides free access to the most authoritative religion statistics, data and church membership reports from around the world, including Christian statistics and adherents data. Education. However, its governments have been able to shift their priorities from administering deficit-run—and often corrupt—state-owned companies to improving the country’s dire health and educational services and transportation infrastructure. Many Indians, particularly in the cities, market towns, and new colonies, speak or understand Spanish. Many of the mines were taken over by cooperatives owned by former employees. The surface of the Altiplano is composed mostly of water- and wind-borne deposits from the bordering mountains, and it slopes gently southward, its evenness broken by occasional hills and ridges. Bolivia: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%: ... many or most of these are non-practicing Christians. Bolivia is traditionally regarded as a highland country. Listing of all current and alumni artists. Bolivia: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%: Botswana: Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census) Brazil The system in Bolivia is dominated by two great parallel ranges. Víctor Paz Estenssoro enacted some of the continent’s toughest austerity measures and dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 percent to less than 10 percent. Through the centuries, the Roman Catholic Church has accepted some indigenous rituals and customs by assimilation, mainly through combined Catholic and traditional celebrations that continue to be an important part of life in rural and urban settings. Many Indians, particularly in the cities, market towns, and new colonies, speak or understand Spanish. Did Chile gain its independence in 1818? Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The country is a major producer of tin and gold, and, although its exports of zinc and silver are small parts of the world market, they account for a significant portion of export earnings. In the early 21st century Mount Potosí (Cerro Rico), which has been intensively mined since the mid-16th century, sparked renewed interest because of its still-sizable reserves of silver. Corrections? Although only one-third of Bolivia’s territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. It supports the greatest variety of wildlife in the nation, as well as the largest population centre (Santa Cruz city) and the fastest-growing of Bolivia’s regional economies. At the beginning of the 20th century the population of Bolivia was estimated at 1,800,000. It was once the centre of the ancient Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) empire, and from the 15th to the early 16th century it was a part of the Inca empire. Box 2868 | Guaynabo, Puerto Rico 00970-2868 E-Mail: webmaster@wepa.com 23.253.220.18 Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Bolivia, Bolivia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Bolivia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). However, after President Morales took office in 2006, he nationalized many of the mining firms. An impressive line of snowcapped peaks, some exceeding 20,000 feet (6,100 metres), characterize this northern section, which maintains an average elevation of more than 18,000 feet (5,500 metres) for more than 200 miles (320 km). After the arrival of the conquistadores, Bolivia was subsumed within the Viceroyalty of Peru, and it provided Spain with immense wealth in silver. Updates? P.O. In the extreme south is the Bolivian Chaco, which forms part of the Gran Chaco; it is a level area that varies strikingly with the seasons. Bolivia has one of the highest degrees of income inequality in the world. The literacy rate in Bolivia is 94.98%. The rise of open-pit silver- and gold-mining operations, coupled with the privatization of state mining companies, changed the face of Bolivia’s mining industry. Exploring Latin America: Fact or Fiction? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Northward from the Chaco the relief of the Santa Cruz department is somewhat more varied, exhibiting a gentle downward slope to the north. Tin long dominated metal production, but by the late 20th century both foreign and domestic companies were investing more heavily in gold and silver extraction. In the late 20th century membership grew in various Protestant denominations (notably Evangelical churches), and there were also increasing numbers of Bahāʾīs and Mormons. The implications for all of humanity, and indeed for science, religion and philosophy will be immense. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to receive considerable foreign technical assistance and long-term loans from international organizations, including the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as from numerous creditor nations. Bolivia is well endowed with natural resources. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Beliefs vary based on religion. To the east is the Cordillera Oriental, whose spectacular northern section near La Paz is called Cordillera Real (“Royal Range”). Hellcat Records is pleased to welcome the progenitors of ska, The Mighty Mighty BossToneS to the family. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Since the 1940s the Roman Catholic Church has ventured from an almost exclusively ceremonial role into the fields of social aid, the news media, and education. Lake Poopó used to be the country’s second largest, after Lake Titicaca, and just a few decades ago in … In the 1990s the economy grew rapidly, and billions of dollars in new investment came into Bolivia after the administration of Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada Bustamente (1993–97) privatized nearly the entire state-run economy. The proportion of Roman Catholics has decreased slowly but still accounts for more than three-fourths of the population. 2020. Its economic development has been limited, however, by high production costs and lack of investment; persisting obstacles include an inadequate transportation infrastructure and the country’s landlocked location. Purpose of mandate. At the beginning of the 20th century fewer than one-tenth of Bolivians lived in urban areas, but by 1950 the urban population had more than doubled. Average per capita income is low, and Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in South America. The ARDA offers recent U.S. and international survey findings, local, national and global profiles of religion, and detailed demographic reports and maps of religious and protestant denominations in America. On December 30, RDIF and Bolivia's Health Supply Centre, CEASS, announced an agreement to supply the country with 5.6 million doses of Sputnik V, which would be sufficient to vaccinate around 2.6 million people. Darwin’s Theory of the Evolution of Man will be overturned. The Puna is broken up by the Valles, a system of fertile valleys and mountain basins that are generally larger and less confined than those in the Yungas. In the late 20th century, however, the demographic and economic landscape began to change as the eastern lowlands—particularly the department of Santa Cruz—developed rapidly. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences. Important boosts to the economy also accompanied the rapid development of agriculture and extraction industries in the Santa Cruz region, the growth of natural gas and oil exploration in the surrounding areas of Tarija, Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba, the modernization of the telecommunications industry, and new investments in electric power generation and water services. The mandate holder has been invited to identify existing and emerging obstacles to the enjoyment of the right to freedom of religion or belief and present recommendations on ways and means to overcome such obstacles. During the festival, dancers wear elaborate masks and outfits that depict devils, their blue-eyed mistresses, Inca rulers, and African slave drivers. The country has a rich history. When religion is seen in terms of sacred, divine, intensive valuing, or ultimate concern, then it is possible to understand why scientific findings and philosophical criticisms (e.g., those made by Richard Dawkins) do not necessarily disturb its adherents. Fortunately they have been well documented, photographed, and subjected to testing by reputable experts. Christianity is the largest religion in Bolivia, with Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination. The margins of the Altiplano are characterized by numerous spurs and interlocking alluvial fans (accumulations of silt, gravel, and other debris that were brought down from the mountains and that have spread out in the shape of a fan). Hugo Chavéz of Venezuela and Fidel Castro of Cuba—had begun a shift back toward the nationalization of Bolivia’s industries to counter foreign control and to better fund social programs for the poor. The economy, depending on the earnings from tin exportation, fluctuated wildly. A huge lake in Bolivia has almost entirely disappeared. Brunswick Community College provides opportunities for individuals to be successful through accessible, high quality, student-centered programs and services that meet the educational, cultural and workforce needs of a diverse community. Did the Incan people rule over ancient Mexico? Author of. Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution. Take advantage of our Presidents' Day bonus! The Bolivian government, wary of foreign exploitation, discussed options and feasibility for the mineral’s extraction and production. Sort fact from fiction in this journey through Latin America. Religion is the substance, the ground, and the depth of man's spiritual life." Bolivia’s mountainous western region, which is one of the highest inhabited areas in the world, constitutes an important economic and political centre. After the state pulled out of mineral exploration, most of Bolivia’s mineral production fell into the hands of Compañía Minera del Sur (COMSUR), Inti Raymi, and a number of smaller mining companies, as well as foreign-owned companies. Mi Teleferico. Healthcare expenditured comprised only 4.9% of the GDP. craigslist provides local classifieds and forums for jobs, housing, for sale, services, local community, and events The rate of urbanization has paralleled that of population growth. In the early 1980s the country’s businesses stagnated as a result of falling world tin prices, bad harvests, debt repayments, and inflation that became hyperinflation. The vast area of the Oriente is composed of low alluvial plains (llanos), great swamps, flooded bottomlands, open savannas, and tropical forests. Bolivia also has reserves of antimony, tungsten (wolfram), lead, copper, and lithium. Aspects The plateau is a relatively flat-floored depression about 500 miles (800 km) long and 80 miles (130 km) wide, lying at elevations between 12,000 and 12,500 feet (3,650 and 3,800 metres). Health. 4,146 reviews. Between 1925 and 1950 the population grew at a slightly accelerated rate (despite the losses of the Chaco War), increasing by about 750,000. In the 1980s, for example, a glut in the world market forced the formerly state-owned mining corporation, Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL), to cut its production drastically and lay off more than two-thirds of its workforce. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. Between these ranges lies the Altiplano (“High Plateau”), which extends from southern Peru through Bolivia to northern Argentina. Go play. They lie at elevations mostly between 6,000 and 9,500 feet (1,800 and 2,900 metres) and are noted for their rich, varied agriculture and the so-called garden cities of Cochabamba, Sucre, and Tarija. Activists from the Amazon River basin arriving in the Bolivian capital of La Paz on June 27, 2012. A primate cardinalship, located in Sucre, heads the church hierarchy in Bolivia. There the Andes reach their greatest breadth and complexity. Jesus Christ didn’t agree with the view that there are many religions, many roads, all leading to salvation. Other religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism. ... National Quarantine Measures in Bolivia through September 30. During the last quarter of the 20th century the rate of population growth slowed somewhat but was still among the higher rates in Latin America. Some Bolivians emigrate to Argentina or Chile, searching for work and higher wages. The country continues, however, to be exceptionally vulnerable to changes in world tin demand. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The population increased dramatically by at least 2,250,000 (to some 5,300,000) during the next 25 years as the death rate fell and the birth rate remained consistently high. The Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief is an independent expert appointed by the UN Human Rights Council. The Mighty Mighty BossToneS. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Otherwise, why would they be involved in it? North and east of the Andes and Yungas is the Oriente region, an extension of the Amazon River basin that covers more than two-thirds of Bolivia. To the north of the Cordillera Real is the Apolobamba range, bordered on the western slopes by lakes and protected areas where vicuñas, alpacas, and llamas thrive. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. At the beginning of the 21st century, more than two-thirds of Bolivians were urban. Initially, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral output dropped disastrously, and wages increased. The constitutional capital is the historic city of Sucre, where the Supreme Court is established, but the administrative capital is La Paz, where the executive and legislative branches of government function. Uyuni, Bolivia. After 25 years of slow growth thereafter it had increased to about 2,300,000. Thus, despite the long-overdue political and social reforms embodied in the revolution, the rate of national economic growth remained extremely low. In the mines, llamas are sacrificed as part of the worship of Pachamama and of Tío, the protector of the mines. Previously only Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua were official languages of the country. To the west along the border with Chile is the Cordillera Occidental, which contains numerous active volcanoes and the spectacular Uyuni Salt Flat; the cordillera is crowned by the republic’s highest peak, Mount Sajama, reaching an elevation of 21,463 feet (6,542 metres). In Bolivia the name Yungas often refers to a smaller region northeast of La Paz, which, like the neighbouring region of Alto Beni (the upper basin of the Beni River north of Caranavi), is part of the larger Yungas region. The revolutionary program of 1952–53 included immediate agrarian reform, based on breaking up the large estates and nationalizing the mines. Previously only Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua were official languages of the country. 102 reviews $$ - $$$ • Vegetarian Friendly, Vegan Options, Gluten Free Options. Under a new constitution promulgated in January 2009, COMIBOL must oversee the operations of foreign mining companies. Juan Evo Morales Ayma—who shared a leftist ideology with close allies Pres. 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