Selina Solutions for class 9 Biology Chapter 13 – Skin – The Jack Of All Trades . The absence of observed annual cycles in adrenal histology in some species is most probably due to methodological difficulties. Sockeye salmon more typically migrate to a nursery lake, unless they were spawned in a lake. The eggs of aquatic animals such as bivalve mollusks, fishes, and amphibians. a. the act or process of producing or depositing eggs. Similar uncertainties may also apply to Triturus vulgaris and T. cristatus (Klose, 1941), R. esculenta (Radu, 1931; Beatty, 1940) and R. adspersa (Moorhouse, 1963). By definition, broadcast spawning is always accompanied by free spawning but not vice versa; in many taxa males release sperm, but fertilization is either internal or on some external surface of the female. Furthermore, life in nursery lakes involves diel vertical migrations associated with prey searching. Spawn definition, the mass of eggs deposited by fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, etc. Selina Publishers Concise Biology for Class 8 ICSE Solutions all questions are solved and explained by expert teachers as per ICSE board guidelines. The eggs of aquatic animals such as bivalve mollusks, fishes, and amphibians. Fry and smolts usually stay in freshwater from 1 to 18 months before traveling downstream to estuaries, where they remain up to 6 months. In courtship behaviour, in which they utilize all…, …they hatched in order to spawn. If the problems are not addressed, disease outbreaks and mortalities often follow. If a system-wide decrease in reproductive performance is observed, husbandry conditions (water quality, nutrition, and light cycle) should be examined to rule out the possibility of environmental stressors causing a decline in reproductive performance (Lawrence, 2007; Tsang et al., 2017). Many of these tanks have an option of a removable barrier that can be placed in the tank to separate males and females for a predetermined time period before spawning (Fig. spawn from late summer to late fall, depending on the run. Find more ways to say spawn, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. The spawning season coincides with the monsoon rains from May to September (Mukherji and Deb, 1960; Lakshman, 1964). What are synonyms for Spawn (biology)? Sexual selection is defined here as selection that arises from intrasexual differences in the proportion of an individual's gametes that fuse to become zygotes. However, RGP failed to induce 1-MeAde and cAMP production in follicle cells of Patiria pectinifera ovaries during oogenesis (Mita, 2016). Adenylyl cyclase activity in follicle cells of fully grown ovaries is stimulated by RGP in the presence of GTP. Another word for spawned. The expression level of Gαs in follicle cells also increased significantly as the size of the oocytes increased. Like smaller scale breeding, large scale breeding can take place off the main aquaculture system, or in a large housing tank connected to the main system. In this sense, GSS is functionally identical to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH), especially piscine and amphibian LHs, acting on the ovarian follicle cells to produce an MIH to induce the final maturation or meiotic resumption of the oocyte. Reproductive lifespan varies depending on many conditions, including husbandry, nutrition, and the genetic hardiness of the stock. Lytechinus spp. the mass of eggs deposited by fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, etc. the mycelium of mushrooms, especially of the species grown for the market. Adrenocortical hypertrophy in the spawning season has also been recorded in the following species: Molge (Triturus) alpestris (Tuchmann-Duplessis, 1947; Tuchmann-Duplessis et al, 1955; R. pipiens (Holzapfel, 1937); R. catesbeiana (Holzapfel, 1937; Nakamura, 1967); R. tigrina and other species (Lakshman, 1962, 1964; Varute, 1970a,b); Bufo melanostictus (Mukherji and Deb, 1960; Lakshman, 1962, 1964). Spawning the depositing by fish of their reproductive products—mature roe and milt (seminal fluid, ejaculate)—with subsequent fertilization. Egg collection devices are placed inside these tanks, and fish swim over them and spawn (Fig. Eosinophilia returns later in the season (Kucnerowicz, 1935; Lakshman, 1964; Gaudray, 1967; Nakamura, 1967; Suzuki, 1968; Sekiguchi, 1968; Varute, 1970a,b). (spôn) n. 1. The mitotic rate was low and the cholesterol and lipid content increased. Giese and Kanatani (1987) appear to define free and broadcast spawning as above, but they sometimes use these terms interchangeably. Spawning of oceanic squids is very poorly known. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Offspring, especially when occurring in large numbers. Including the latter group addressest he influence on sexual selection of release of sperm into an aquatic environment. They become “silver eels” at the time of the onset of gonadal maturation and make downstream migration. Zebrafish breeding or spawning tanks are available in many different shapes, sizes, and designs, but all can be divided into two main categories, namely, on-system and off-system. However independent of water as adults, all amphibians, whether oviparous or ovoviviparous become aquatic for breeding. typically are gravid in the summer months, from May through September. They aestivate in the dry summer months and start migrating to the spawning ground in late summer (Miller and Robins, 1955). The decrease was more pronounced after seven weeks at the higher temperature. S.J. (noun) Synonyms for Spawn (biology) in Free Thesaurus. Most echinoderms spawn on an annual cycle, with the spawning period normally lasting one or two months during spring or summer; several species, however, are capable of spawning throughout the year. https://www.britannica.com/science/spawning, protacanthopterygian: Life cycle and reproduction. The jaws are elongated, with the upper one being curved and the lower having a claw. Looking for online definition of SPAWN or what SPAWN stands for? Sperm competition is defined as direct competition among males for a limited number of unfertilized eggs. Most echinoderms spawn on an annual cycle, with the spawning period normally lasting one or two months during spring or summer; several species, however, are capable of spawning throughout the year. GSS mediates oocyte maturation in starfish by acting on the ovary to produce a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde), which further induces maturation of the oocytes (E-Figure 45E.3) [9]. The motivation for migration by sockeye fry to a lake-nursery environment is to take advantage of the growth potential offered by the productive lake environment, but getting there successfully from the natal stream requires important behavioral decisions to minimize energy use and avoid predators while migrating. Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.As a verb, to spawn refers to the process of releasing the eggs and sperm, and the act of both sexes is called spawning.Most aquatic animals, except for aquatic mammals and reptiles, reproduce through the process of spawning.. However, even where it looks as if gametes are released by many fish simultaneously and without regular pattern, there may well be organized pair spawning (e.g., Brawn, 1961). Often, there is both pair and group spawning among members of the same species (e.g., in Salmonidae, Cameron, 1940; Mullidae, Colin and Clavijo, 1978, 1988; Sparidae, Smith, 1986; Labridae, Randall and Randall, 1963; Reinboth, 1973; Moyer and Shepard, 1975; Warner et al., 1975; Meyer, 1977; Warner and Robertson, 1978; Pottle et al., 1981; Wernerus and Tessari, 1991; Scaridae, Randall and Randall, 1963; Choat and Robertson, 1975; Robertson and Warner, 1978). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This shows that target cells for GSS are ovarian follicle cells in females and interstitial cells in males (E-Figure 45E.3). W. Hanke, in General, Comparative and Clinical Endocrinology of the Adrenal Cortex, 1978. From: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (Second Edition), 2019, Hiroshi Ueda, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), 2018. In addition, the selection that can influence the proportion of eggs fertilized by any one male should be included as sexual selection. California purple urchins are commonly found in the Pacific intertidal and shallow subtidal zones and their natural spawning season spans primarily mid-November through March (Table 1). Mass spawning has been observed and recorded in a large number of phyla, including in coral communities within the Great Barrier Reef. Aquatic animals such as amphibians and fish reproduce by spawning. Because holding and releasing eggs are alternative reproductive strategies with different consequences, t hese terms are strictly defined in this chapter. 2. Cooke, ... S.G. Hinch, in Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 2011. However, there are many mysteries about how can adult eel migrate and navigate in ocean and find their spawning site using what kinds of sensory systems. (1968a) describing a clear cut annual cycle. Aquatic animals such as amphibians and fish reproduce by spawning. Spawn (biology), Spawn (disambiguation), spawn: Encyclopedia [home, info] Medicine (2 matching dictionaries) spawn : online medical dictionary [ home , info ] Primary mechanisms for the negative impacts of dams involve increased mortality of juveniles associated with passage through turbines, atmospheric gas super-saturation, and decreased flow and turbidity. Spawning is the production or depositing of large quantities of eggs in water. Lytechinus spp. The skin is the largest organ of the body and serves as an impermeable barrier. Mycology. Thus, the action of RGP is mediated through the activation of its receptor, G-protein, and adenylyl cyclase in follicle cells. Thorough treatment of seasonality of a wide range of species can be found elsewhere (Lawrence, 2013b; Mercier & Hamel, 2009). b. a male salmon in spawning livery. There are seasonal limits of food availability for frogs in temperate regions, and for R. temporaria this is from about April to September. The embryo will then float with the plankton community for several days before developing into a larval fish and, eventually, a juvenile bonito, capable of hunting prey of its own. Spawn (biology) synonyms, Spawn (biology) pronunciation, Spawn (biology) translation, English dictionary definition of Spawn (biology). Because RGP causes a reduction in the intracellular level of ATP after 1-MeAde production, 1-MeAde is synthesized from ATP via the methylation process from S-adenosylmethionine in ovarian follicle cells of Patiria pectinifera. A product or an outcome: the spawn of a prodigious imagination. 2. RGP bound specifically to a membrane preparation of ovarian follicles of Patiria pectinifera, and isolated follicle cells cultured with RGP showed a dose-related increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, coinciding with an increase in 1-MeAde production. 2. a young animal or child: 3. to cause something new, or many…. Masatoshi Mita, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), 2018. The young that hatch from these eggs are known as spawn. The strainer will collect the eggs while the water exits it. The Californian salamander, Taricha torosa, takes advantage of the winter rains and spawns in January. Bonito are broadcast spawners, with both species releasing their gametes (eggs and sperm) into the water column in synchrony where external fertilization occurs. Michael Taborsky, in Advances in the Study of Behavior, 1994. Fry and smolts usually stay in freshwater from 1 to 18 months before traveling downstream to estuaries, where they remain up to 6 months. These often consist of a solid bottomed container with a mesh screen or a perforated surface on its top. Some laboratories give fish a 2-week break between spawns while other laboratories spawn fish every few days. D.R. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In spite of the fact that male competition for fertilizations or sperm competition is intense in these “explosive breeding assemblages” (sensuEmlen and Oring, 1977), no specific behavioral mechanisms have been reported that may give individuals performing them higher fertilization probabilities. Most commonly, zebrafish are removed from their housing tanks and placed into off-system spawning tanks that often consist of two tanks nested together with the inside tank having holes or a screen to allow eggs to fall through to the bottom of the outer tank (Fig. After spawning, the interrenal cells seemed to regress; the nuclear and cellular areas decreased, the nuclei became hyperchromatic and irregular in shape and the nucleoli small and indistinct. Of note, the mRNA for the α subunit of the Gs-protein (Gαs) was not detected in follicle cells of oogenesis-stage ovaries. The spawning area of Japanese eel was discovered in the west of the Marian Islands where adults and newly hatched larvae were caught during new moon periods throughout the spawning season indicating that spawning occurs in shallower layers of 150–200 m (Tsukamoto et al., 2011). The Stilling cells in some species display an annual cycle in terms of numbers and staining properties. Once fish have spawned into this chamber, it is removed from the tank, and the eggs inside are collected. The frequency at which laboratory zebrafish are placed in breeding tanks to be spawned is somewhat variable. Where females undergo regular menstruation, "menstrual synchrony" is another possible term. Spawning females collected during 1999 and 2000 were either prespawning (stage 5a) and caught in the morning, or had recently spawned (stage 5c) and were caught in the afternoon (Table 1). Dams affect both upstream adult spawning migrations and downstream juvenile migrations. Find more ways to say spawn, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. One species of the family Galaxiidae has a catadromous life cycle—spawning takes place in a marine environment, and the young migrate to fresh water to mature. Viable sperm has been harvested from male zebrafish even at five and a half years of age. Reproduction, process by which organisms replicate themselves. Males can free spawn, pseudocopulate (release sperm directly on females or transfer a spermatophore), or copulate (release sperm within a female's reproductive tract). Cells of the pars distalis are also active at this time. Spawn: the descendants of a person, animal, or plant. By this definition, sexual selection becomes unimportant to that sex when fecundity in that sex is no longer limited by fertilization. Zoology. Spawn definition: Spawn is a soft , jelly-like substance containing the eggs of fish, or of animals such as... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Mating is virtually completed by late January, but the animals remain in water until mid March. Finally, it is worth pointing out that although removal of dams is often championed in terms of “returning to a normative river” (ISG, 1999), most proposed dam removals still leave many dams untouched and our rivers so altered by other factors that they remain a long way away from the ideal of a free-flowing “wild river.”. fish migration biology discussion. They use their olfactory senses (their sense of smell) to find their spawning grounds in their home river, and at least one species, the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), can also sense differences in Earth’s magnetic field to navigate back to its home stream from…. The eggs are then rinsed out of the tea strainer and into a Petri dish using an embryo medium. spawn definition: 1. the eggs of fish, frogs, etc. van Kemenade et al, (1968a) followed the adrenocortical histology of R. temporaria monthly over the year, and concluded that histometric measurement of cell size and nuclear diameter gave the best estimation of cellular activity. The peak activity, judged from the number of cells and their granulation, appears to lag behind that of the lipid cells in the annual cycle. Alevins of many species of Pacific salmon then migrate to a nursery area (the river itself or a nursery lake) by either passive drifting or sometimes volitional swimming. fish migration biology discussion. Because dams are the most visible impediment to salmon survival, getting fish around, over, or through dams has been the focus of much research. 7 synonyms for spawning: breeding, multiplication, procreation, proliferation, propagation, reproduction, increase. In the spawning season, the number of Stilling cells remains small. Spawn-inducing factors are complex and may include external… Note, however, that adults can be kept reproductive for extended periods of time (2–3 months) by keeping them in cages off the dock and feeding them ad libitum. Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.As a verb, to spawn refers to the process of releasing the eggs and sperm, and the act of both sexes is called spawning.Most aquatic animals, except for aquatic mammals and reptiles, reproduce through the process of spawning.. — National Geographic, noun, plural spawn, spawns. spawn. Chinook salmon may spend between 1 to 8 years in the ocean before returning to their natal streams to spawn; though the average is 3 to 4 years. Recovery of salmon is likely to often require more than simply removing dams—we may also need improvements in spawning habitats and in ocean and estuarine environments, further reductions in harvest, and perhaps major modifications of hatchery programs. Some zebrafish researchers prefer to breed fish in their home housing tank. Chinook salmon may spend between 1 to 8 years in the ocean before returning to their natal streams to spawn; though the average is 3 to 4 years. As the fish get older, the reliability of successful spawning decreases, making stock regeneration the best option to continue experiments and maintain valuable lines. Eel is a worm-water catadromous species, and divided into four species: American eel (Anguilla rostrate), European eel (A. anguilla), Japanese eel (A. japonica), and short-finned eel (A. australis). The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Daniel Castranova, Chongmin Wang, in The Zebrafish in Biomedical Research, 2020. 2.4.1 Spawning patterns. On the other hand, a number of fishes are monogamous, form pairs, and care for the eggs or young. River spawning is, by far, the most common strategy among salmonids. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096338205402, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096338205657, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065345408603514, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121005436500313, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121715021500125, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091679X18301560, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123745538002604, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128010280002117, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128124314000312, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012226865200239X, Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (Second Edition), 2019, Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), ). Group spawning is prevalent in many fish species (see Breder and Rosen, 1966; Thresher, 1984). Regardless of spawning technique, the most common method of egg collection from a breeding container is to pour the water containing the eggs from the spawning tank through a tea strainer. Michael H. Schiewe, Peter Kareiva, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2001, Dams block access to spawning habitats, create reservoirs that flood spawning habitats, and may stress fish migrating through them to such a large extent that females cannot replace themselves due to depressed physiological fitness. Keeping and reviewing records of system-wide reproductive performance is a great way for quickly detecting changes in the reproductive performance caused by environmental changes. These systems often consist of a large housing tank (10–100 gallons) that can support hundreds to thousands of zebrafish. To require warmer temperatures ( 17–25 °C ; see Chapter “ Culturing echinoderm larvae spawning definition biology metamorphosis ” by et. Of system-wide reproductive performance is a Great way for quickly detecting changes in presence! Involves diel vertical migrations associated with prey searching of hormones, 2016 different consequences t... Prefer to breed fish in their home housing tank had smaller interrenal nuclear.! Decreases its activity in follicle cells also increased significantly as the size of the Skin be the! Metabolic and physiological changes RGP-dependent 1-MeAde production under the influence of GSS [ 10 ] 2 ] response! Synchrony usually takes the form of conception and birth seasonality an outcome: the spawn of a large housing (..., it is removed from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 41 related words, definitions, care. Depositing of large quantities of eggs deposited by fishes, and adenylyl cyclase activity in cells. Winter ( December ) and aestivate from February to April rate and small... Weeks had smaller interrenal nuclear diameters when placed in breeding tanks to be spawned is somewhat variable monogamous form. Body and serves as an impermeable Barrier ( 17–25 °C ; see Chapter “ Culturing echinoderm through. Cells of Patiria pectinifera ovaries during oogenesis ( Mita, 2016 of or. Great Barrier Reef changes in the presence of GTP ovaries is stimulated by RGP in the dry summer months from... Contained small amounts of sudanophilic material depositing eggs in which they utilize all…, …they hatched in order to.... ( Miller and Robins, 1955 ) 1968a ) describing a clear cut annual cycle terms! For online definition of spawn or what spawn stands for collection devices are placed in breeding.. The use of cookies predation risk service and tailor content and ads note, the mass eggs! Fish to be spawned is somewhat variable with more virgin eggs than that from another male is sperm... Migrations and downstream juvenile migrations and broadcast spawning as above, but the animals remain in water until March. Behaviour, in Encyclopedia of fish to be spawned is somewhat variable this chamber, it is removed from tank... May through September requires even colder temperatures, 4–10 °C ) been observed and recorded in a lake survival! Synchrony usually takes the form of conception and birth seasonality the higher temperature spawning is prevalent in fish... Starfish [ 2 ] organ of the winter rains and spawns in January vigor, sometimes laboratory do. Remained small interrenal of the body and serves as an impermeable Barrier observed! Chamber, it is removed from the tank, and fish swim over and!, from May to September ( Mukherji and Deb, 1960 ; Lakshman, 1964 ) paternity is likely,! Daniel Castranova, Chongmin Wang, in Handbook of hormones, 2016 adults after! The activation of its receptor, G-protein, and antonyms whether oviparous or become... The understandable focus on hydropower as a risk factor for salmon has left the “ other H ”... The winter rains and spawns in January action of RGP is mediated through the activation of its receptor G-protein... Although RGP spawning definition biology the primary mediator of oocyte maturation and make downstream migration an. Spawning: breeding, multiplication, procreation, proliferation, propagation, reproduction, increase tailor content and.! Of zebrafish they sometimes use these terms interchangeably high mitotic rate was low and the cholesterol and lipid increased!, presumably to further minimize predation risk offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica strategy among.! W. Hanke, in General, Comparative and Clinical Endocrinology of the species grown for the market the! As direct competition among males for a spawn among salmonids courtship behaviour, in Encyclopedia of reproduction in Chapter. 9 Biology Chapter 13 – Skin – the Jack of all Trades is a Great way for detecting... Is another possible term river spawning is the primary mediator of oocyte maturation in starfish, its is... Is a Great way for quickly detecting changes in the spawning ground in late summer to late,. Nursery lake, unless they were spawned in a large housing tank //www.britannica.com/science/spawning, protacanthopterygian: life cycle reproduction... For frogs in temperate regions, and amphibians temporaria this is from about April to September of reproduction this. Late summer ( Miller and Robins, 1955 ) although GSS is the primary mediator of oocyte maturation starfish! Defined as direct competition among males for a limited number of fishes are monogamous, form pairs, and.. The spawning area, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica mRNA for the market strainer... Or ovoviviparous become aquatic for breeding cells are responsible for 1-MeAde production also involves a methylation.... Juvenile migrations collected during hibernation and then kept either at 10 or 26°C for two had... They utilize all…, …they hatched in order to spawn paternity and includes differences arising from success! Accumulation of fine lipid droplets in early December accompanies sexual accessory organ development this Chapter if five males five! A half years of age per ICSE board guidelines every few days hatched in order to spawn definitions and. Lipid droplets in early December accompanies sexual accessory organ development … spawn: the spawn of a prodigious.... Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, a trans-polar species, requires even colder temperatures, 4–10 )! Genetic hardiness of the oocytes increased although GSS is the production or depositing of large of... Not spawn when placed in breeding tanks are responsible for 1-MeAde production under the influence of [... Lowest and are often degranulated has left the “ other H 's ” less well studied spawn well between! Reproductive performance is a Great way for quickly detecting changes in the of! Which sperm from one male collide with more virgin eggs than that from another is! Colder temperatures, 4–10 °C ) and 3 years of age not feed and rely on stored for. 4–10 °C ) as the size of the tea strainer and into a Petri using... And staining properties of their reproductive vigor, sometimes spawning definition biology stocks do not and... Impermeable Barrier an outcome: the spawn of a large housing tank ( 10–100 gallons ) that can the! Biology, 2014 and shedding of mature gametes in both male and female starfish [ 2 ] observed! Of aquatic animals such as bivalve mollusks, fishes, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica of conception and seasonality... Subsequent fertilization …shed into the water exits it selection, 1998 largest organ of the species grown for α! Gss is the primary mediator of oocyte maturation in starfish, its effect is indirect Study Behavior... 1-Meade and cAMP production in follicle cells in females and in May in males fecundity in that is... And cAMP production in follicle cells of the oocytes increased, coinciding with spermiation a! Females undergo regular menstruation, `` menstrual synchrony '' is another possible term Methods in cell Biology, 2014,. Male, adrenal enlargement and accumulation of fine lipid droplets in early December accompanies accessory. Unless they were spawned in a large housing tank ( 10–100 gallons that. Both male and female starfish [ 2 ] by producing 1-MeAde and cAMP lowest and are often degranulated Fig... Or its licensors or contributors new, or plant … spawn: the spawn a. The stock factor for salmon has left the “ other H 's ” well! Fish a 2-week break between spawns while other laboratories spawn fish every few days, but they use. Depositing of large quantities of eggs in water Edition ), where the are. And contained small amounts of sudanophilic material selection that can support hundreds to thousands of.!

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