How did the state handle its relations with minority populations? [29], When Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun it was the start of a revolution in Japan. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He planned the assassination of a Shogunate leader who was contemptuous of the Emperor's court. Late in 1867, Keiki Tokugawa surrounded as shogun and by 1868 Edo had given was and was renamed Tokyo. The Tokugawa Shogunate, which is sometimes also known as the Edo Period, was the last medieval government in Japan, just before the modernization of the Meiji Restoration. As was the case in the bakufu, one of this domain's inspectors general concurrently served as its shûmon-aratame yaku (religious inquisitor), an office instituted in the shogunate in 1640 and replicated in domains from Mutsu Province in the Far North to Satsuma in the Deep South. They were from families that had achieved daimyo status prior to the Battle of Sekigahara, independently of the Tokugawa, to whom they did not swear fealty until after that crucial combat. [3] [7] In 1603, the emperor bestowed upon Tokugawa Ieyasu the title of shogun. Archipelago 4 major islands over 6,000 smaller islands Lies on fault lines over 1,500 volcanoes earthquakes are common Why and how did samurai overthrow a government that was ostensibly created in their own interest? [10] [1] [10] Since he left no children or direct heir, the line of Tokugawa Ieyasu died out with him (one hundred years after Ieyasu died himself). [3] [9] Despite some heavy-handed tactics, the Tokugawa shoguns presided over a long period of peace and relative prosperity in Japan. [1] [28], These are the final years of Japan's medieval period (1185-1600) just prior to the reunification of Japan and the establishment of order and peace under the Tokugawa shoguns (1600-1868). The names of no less than 603 different han were recorded over the long course of the Tokugawa period, but no more than 270 or so ever existed at the same time; at the very end of the era, in 1865, there were 266. 1 ). Ietsuna's 30-year reign was a transitional period that solidified the Tokugawa family's rule of Japan. He thus becomes the first of the Tokugawa shoguns. Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. [12] The Tokugawa shogunate , also known, especially in Japanese, as the Edo shogunate (江戸幕府, Edo bakufu), was the feudal military government of Japan during the Edo period from 1600 to 1868. The shogunate could not do without the active assistance of the daimyo, whose domains after all covered the greater part of the country. [9], Modern scholars tend to view his bad reputation as a reflection of the ill will borne toward him by the daimyo--most notably the fudai lords--who resented the strongman's pursuit of the shogunate's interests at the expense of their own. The shogunate was based in a new city far to the east of the longtime capital, Kyoto, called Edo - today’s Tokyo - which is why the shogunate is also called the Edo Period. [10] [4] It was necessary to keep a constant eye on the daimyo to keep them from conspiring against the shogunate and rebelling. [6] In 1603 a shogunate was established by a warrior, Tokugawa Ieyasu, in the city of Edo (present Tokyo). [9] [10], The Tokugawas continued this harsher rule of the class structure, imposing and enforcing rules about small details like which classes could use luxurious silks for their clothing or tortoiseshell for hair-pins. [15] The powerful southwestern tozama domains of Chōshū and Satsuma exerted the greatest pressure on the Tokugawa government and brought about the overthrow of the last shogun, Hitosubashi Keiki (or Yoshinobu), in 1867. The zenith of the Edo Period has passed and the Tokugawa Shogunate is approaching an impending twilight to its centuries long rule over the Japanese Archipelago as it faces great internal and external challenges. [16], The hegemony of the Tokugawa clan was a remarkable period of peace and prosperity. [26] As the period wore on, the monopoly was breached, but it is essentially true that the Tokugawa controlled and manipulated the court for its own purposes. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"--that is, the shogunate. [2] He was also allowed for a brief period to visit Okazaki to pay homage to his father’s grave and to receive the homage of his nominal servants, guided by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. [9] [10] Tokugawa Ieyasu established his capital at Edo, a small fishing village on the marshes of the Kanto plain, which would later become known as Tokyo. The shogunate also forced all daimy to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. [2] The actual bridge, built in 861, had been destroyed by an earthquake in the fifteenth century, and in the Tokugawa period the river was crossed by boat. The Tokugawa themselves held approximately one fourth of the country in strategically located parcels, which they governed directly through a feudal bureaucracy. He was named the first official shogun in 1603, thus beginning the Tokugawa Shogunate. The people called the four major islands of Japan as well as the thousands of minor island … [3] [15] The most intrusive demonstration of the Tokugawa family's ascendancy, however, was no doubt the marriage of Shogun Hidetada's daughter, Tokugawa Masako (1607-1678), to Emperor Go-Mizunoo. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy to reside permanently in Edo. [1] What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? The Tokugawa families were no exception. [8] [10] Tokugawa period, also called Edo period, (1603-1867), the final period of traditional Japan, a time of internal peace, political stability, and economic growth under the shogunate (military dictatorship) founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Explore the history, politics, and economics of the last medieval government in Japan: the Tokugawa Shogunate. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy houses). It also maintained the largest number of samurai, the military component of the system, and demanded and received allegiance from the 270 or so daimyō, and their samurai vassals, who lived in … The administration ( 体制, taisei ) of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. The room, balcony and surrounding gardens were exceptional and justify a stay at the Tokugawa on their own. [13] The head of government was the shōgun, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. [9] This was my second visit to Nikko, whose attraction lies in the natural, wooded surroundings of its beautiful temples. The forced opening of Japan following U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry's arrival in 1853 undoubtedly contributed to the collapse of the Tokugawa rule. [27] [9] Introduction. [13] During the Tokugawa period important economic and social changes occurred: improved farming methods and the growing of cash crops stimulated agricultural productivity; Osaka and Edo became centers of expanded interregional trade; urban life became more sophisticated; and literacy spread to almost half of the male population. [8], Ieyasu formally ruled as shogun for just two years, but in order to ensure his family's claim on the title and ensure continuity of policy, he had his son Hidetada named shogun in 1605, running the government from behind the scenes until his death in 1616 -- this political and administrative savvy would characterize the first Tokugawa shoguns. Following the tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu. In the centuries from the time of the Kamakura bakufu, which existed in equilibrium with the imperial court, to the Tokugawa shogunate, an evolution occurred in which the bushi ( samurai class) became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of government. [8], This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern ( Kinsei ( 近世 ) ). Japanese cultural life had reached a low ebb at the beginning of the Tokugawa period. [1] Russian Empire Tokugawa Japan Location: mongolia Location: europe Location: tokyo Dates: 1644-1912 Dates: 1721-1917 Dates: 1603 – 1868 The Qing dynasty (1636–1912) was established by conquest and maintained by armed force. [9] [15] “Japan’s defeat in the war, and asset taxes, deprived our family of 90 percent of its property,” Yoshichika wrote in a 1963 essay. [7] In medieval Japan, important Buddhist temples of the Tendai and Shingon sects maintained large armies of warrior monks and used them in the wars between samurai lords and the imperial government. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu completed this task and established the Tokugawa Shogunate, which would rule in the emperor's name until 1868. The Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" ( 王政復古, Ōsei fukko ) of imperial rule. [5] [12] The reunification of Japan is accomplished by three strong daimyo who succeed each other: Oda Nobunaga (1543-1582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), and finally Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) who establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate, that governs for more than 250 years, following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. [5] This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. Beginning in 1568, however, Japan's "Three Reunifiers" -- Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu -- worked to bring the warring daimyo back under central control. [3] [3], When a rebel group of daimyo united to support the restoration of the Imperial Family to power, the brittle shogunate collapsed. The rural location of the Tokugawa enhanced and complimented our enjoyment of lovely Nikko. [5] [11], That organism is commonly called the bakuhan system, after its key constituents--the bakufu, a military term meaning "general headquarters" but used historically for a national government headed by a shogun (hence synonymous with the word shogunate); and the multiple han, the domains of provincial lords known as daimyo, "great names." [3] [13] The material foundations of the Tokugawa shogunate's predominance within the polity were military and economic. The disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the "Tokugawa peace" put more people back on the land. The soba yōnin increased in importance during the time of the fifth shōgun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, when a wakadoshiyori, Inaba Masayasu, assassinated Hotta Masatoshi, the tairō. The outcome of the battle strengthened established the Tokugawa clan as the rulers in Japan. [12] There were still branches descended from Ieyasu through one of his many children, and the new shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune, was chosen from one of these lineal Tokugawa branches. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The Tokugawa Shogunate began in 1600 with Tokugawa Ieyasu's seizure of the reins of power, and lasted until 1868 with Tokugawa Yoshinobu's abdication to the Emperor Meiji, ushering in the Meiji Restoration. [28], Cities like Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo grew quickly under the Shogunate. [9] [5], Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. [3] [16] [1] The existence of these branch families safeguarded the continuity of the Tokugawa lineage, but their members were not usually appointed to the shogunate's governing councils. After 250 years of peace and relative isolation under the Tokugawa shoguns, Japan launched itself into the modern world. [4] [14] How did the state use art, architecture, and culture to its advantage? [21], After Tokugawa Ieyasu won the battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and became shogun in 1603, key family members of the Tokugawa clan were placed in strategic locations to ensure the continuity of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Throughout the Shogunate of Japan during the Tokugawa time period (1603-1868), the people, resources, and industries were directly affected by the geography. [29] [16] The shogunate had the power to discard, annex, and transform domains. In the 1630s, beginning in the year 1633, the shogunate issued a series of edicts that practically eliminated its own nationals' travel beyond Japan's borders and rigorously controlled foreigners' entry within. Privacy Policy  | [9] Ironically, both the Choshu rebels and the Tokugawa troops began programs of rapid modernization, which meant adopting many western military technologies. [10] Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: "an integrated yet decentralized state structure," the "compound state," and Edwin O. Reischauer's celebrated oxymoron "centralized feudalism" are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. Tokugawa Ieyasu took three more years to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the various daimyō, but Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, the last shogunate to control Japan The shogunate was only one part of the bakuhan system, however; the domains were the other. The powers which the shogunate exercised over the domains had the effect of forcing the domains to behave in much the same manner since they were facing the same requirements. Ieyasu maintained control until his death 11 years later, but this maneuver established the hereditary nature of the shogunate, which it would be maintained through 15 Tokugawa shoguns, until 1867. [1] [5] [28], As time progressed, the function of the ōmetsuke evolved into one of passing orders from the shogunate to the daimyōs, and of administering to ceremonies within Edo Castle. [9] He was the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu In 1682, Shogun Tsunayoshi ordered his police to raise the living standard of the people. How did the state handle relations with foreigners and external threats/influences? In line with this, the Tokugawa shogunate restricted diplomatic contact by prohibiting any Europeans except the Dutch from coming to Japan after 1639; this was the policy of national seclusion (sakoku). [9] The shogunate held a near monopoly over foreign trade and foreign affairs. After Hideyoshi's death resulted in a power struggle among the daimyo, Ieyasu triumphed in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and became shogun to Japan's imperial court in 1603. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. In theory, the Great Elder was a chief magistrate with extraordinary powers, one who exercised general jurisdiction and control over the shogunate's policy, but most of the thirteen men who occupied it between 1638 and 1866 acted in an advisory capacity. [9] Attendant on the Tokugawa peace was the policy of national seclusion. [3] [10], Through the Kyh Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai. [12] That being said, just because the Meiji Restoration was an era of modernization did not mean that Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate was primitive. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The Tokugawa Shogunate lasted from 1603 to 1868 and contained 15 shoguns. The Shimabara Rebellion was the largest civil conflict in Japan during the Edo period , and was one of only a handful of instances of serious unrest during the relatively peaceful period of the Tokugawa shogunate's rule. [8] The trade monopoly was important because significant profits were available to the Tokugawa alone. Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources. [13] [29], His hereditary successors, members of the Tokugawa family, exercised ultimate power over Japan until 1868. [10], In order to demonstrate that the country's government would remain hereditarily in Tokugawa hands, Ieyasu resigned the shogunal title after only two years, in 1605, to the benefit of his son Hidetada (1579-1632); and Hidetada in turn passed it on to his son Iemitsu (1604-1651) in 1623. The resulting system of semi-autonomous domains directed by the central authority of the Tokugawa shogunate lasted for more than 250 years. Having been inspired by the regime's founding father, the deified Ieyasu, the decrees prohibiting Christianity acquired the character of the Tokugawa shogunate's ancestral law. [12] They also had to travel to and from Edo along a route dictated by the shogunate. [1], The samurai were not the only sector in Japan that faced changing lifestyles or livelihoods under the Tokugawas. 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