// TypeScript knows that maybe is a string. keyof and Lookup Types in TypeScript January 6, 2017. When you declare a variable, you have four options − Declare its type and value in one statement. The following are the reserved words and cannot be used as the identifier names. Built-in types. In these cases, we want to provide a type that tells the compiler and future readers that this variable could be anything, so we give it the unknown type. : … typescript type keyword . Hello, this is starting the article for advanced TypeScript tutorial series. Argument of type 'undefined' is not assignable to parameter of type 'object | null'. To do so, you use the this followed by a colon, followed by the type of the function signature. type NgScope = ng.IScope; In the first, you use the type of the elements followed by [] to denote an array of that element type: The second way uses a generic array type, Array: Tuple types allow you to express an array with a fixed number of elements whose types are known, but need not be the same. You can set or test variables declared with those four types against the types null or undefined. TypeScript Type Keyword. Array types can be written in one of two ways. Data types in TypeScript. TypeScript’s type inference means that you don’t have to annotate your code until you want more safety. For example, if we had the value 2 but weren’t sure what that mapped to in the Color enum above, we could look up the corresponding name: We may need to describe the type of variables that we do not know when we are writing an application. Reserved words. Usually, this will happen when you know the type of some entity could be more specific than its current type. Explore how TypeScript extends JavaScript to add more safety and tooling. // Function returning never must not have a reachable end point, // Remember, undefined is a subtype of null. We can use it to create variables as shown below. All the type-checking information is discarded when the TypeScript is compiled into JavaScript. An alternative meaning of in in typescript is in mapped type definition. Let's now discuss what Object and {} represent. type PrimitiveArray = Array; type MyNumber = number; type NgScope = ng.IScope; type Callback = () => void; Type aliases are exactly the same as their original types; they are simply alternative names. However, every variable in TypeScript has a type. Definitely Typed - a community project to provide types and inline documentation to existing JavaScript. About Number, String, Boolean, Symbol and Object. ... JavaScript primitive types inside TypeScript. Interfaces. enum - typescript type keyword . Another fundamental part of creating programs in JavaScript for webpages and servers alike is working with textual data. How to write an interface with TypeScript, The TypeScript docs are an open source project. This time, we defined an initial value for our variable. 18, Jun 18. {firstName: string; ... To solve this problem, we define an interface type using interface keyword. 1 TypeScript Tutorial - 'infer' keyword 2 TypeScript Tutorial - conditional types 3 TypeScript Tutorial - return based on args 4 TypeScript Tutorial - Use "as const" to export colors! } You can read about them in the handbook or in the pull request. Keywords have a special meaning in the context of a language. Here's some plain JavaScript Reading the code, it's clear to a human that the .toUpperCase() method call is safe. The other version is the “angle-bracket” syntax: The two samples are equivalent. The main differences between Types and Interfaces in TypeScript. These values may come from dynamic content – e.g. Introduction. [3] Argument of type '"string"' is not assignable to parameter of type 'object | null'. This is equivalent to declaring sentence like so: TypeScript, like JavaScript, allows you to work with arrays of values. For example, we can start the previous example at 1 instead of 0: Or, even manually set all the values in the enum: A handy feature of enums is that you can also go from a numeric value to the name of that value in the enum. Use of this keyword in TypeScript depends on the context in which it is used. TypeScript class. Union types are an advanced topic that we’ll cover in a later chapter. Also, in TypeScript, we have advanced types and in these advanced types, we have something called type aliases. ECMAScript 20XX. In Typescript, you can specify the type of a function with this keyword. Object is possibly 'undefined'.Tuple type '[string, number]' of length '2' has no element at index '5'. To address this, the TypeScript team helps maintain . Let's add basic types to this function so we can let TypeScript worry about whether we are using it safely or not. Type 'string' is not assignable to type 'boolean'. How to provide types to functions in JavaScript. Using this information, TypeScript creates an implicit interface type for student. The type keyword simplifies annotating and reusing union types. TypeScript Is Data-Typed. Jeder JavaScript-Code ist auch gültiger TypeScript-Code, sodass gängige JavaScript-Bibliotheken (wie z. This functionality enables you to create a new type from an existing one. In the following example truck class uses the this keyword.The keyword refers to different objects in the constructor and the getEmployeeName function.In the constructor this refers to the Employee class whereas in the getEmployeeName ,this refers to the any type which is a special type in TypeScript. Most of the world's JavaScript is un-typed, and inference can only go so far. User-Defined Type Guards 1. Notice the infer keyword. TypeScript doesn’t have many built-in data types you can use to declare variables—just string, number and Boolean. from the user – or we may want to intentionally accept all values in our API. In these cases, we might want to opt-out of type checking. It can be tempting to think that the types Number, String, Boolean, Symbol, or Object are the same as the lowercase versions recommended above. type MyNumber = number; For example: Sometimes you’ll end up in a situation where you’ll know more about a value than TypeScript does. These types do not refer to the language primitives however, and almost never should be used as a type. Type 'boolean' is not assignable to type 'string'. // TypeScript knows that maybe is a boolean now. ... Identifiers and Keywords in TypeScript. All Vskills Certification exams are ONLINE now. Optional parameters and properties 2. Was ist das für "Typ" reservierte Wort in TypeScript? Argument of type '42' is not assignable to parameter of type 'object | null'. Advantages and Disadvantages of TypeScript over JavaScript. const enum (completely inlined enums). TypeScript - ReadOnly. Der Artikel stellt nur eine Auswahl der am meisten erwarteten … Exhaustiveness checkingPolymorphic this typesIndex types 1. TypeScript can figure out that it is a string, and therefore we now have a adequately typed variable. For example, you may want to represent a value as a pair of a string and a number: When accessing an element with a known index, the correct type is retrieved: Accessing an element outside the set of known indices fails with an error: A helpful addition to the standard set of datatypes from JavaScript is the enum. When you work with TypeScript, the as keyword is only telling the type checker to pretend something has a different type. As in JavaScript, all numbers in TypeScript are either floating point values or BigIntegers. (2) Beim Versuch, eine Schnittstelle in TypeScript zu erstellen, ist mir gerade aufgefallen, dass "type" entweder ein Schlüsselwort oder ein reserviertes Wort ist. JavaScript doesn’t have a concept of type casting because variables have dynamic types. A similar thing happens with functions. Step 7: Mapped Type. Awesome = 4, We didn’t give the compiler any tips on how we will use it. This helps avoid many common errors. Read-only members can be accessed outside the class, but their value cannot be changed. : T[P]; // P will be each key of T } type PersonPartial = Partial; // same as { name? To do so, we label these values with the any type: The any type is a powerful way to work with existing JavaScript, allowing you to gradually opt-in and opt-out of type checking during compilation. The new const enum declaration works just like a regular enum for type safety, but erases completely at compile time. The in keyword is used there as part of the syntax to iterate over all the items in a union of keys. Ruby’s is Object same for C#, inside the documentation we find: (…) values from code that has been written without TypeScript or a 3rd party library. Just as in JavaScript, we use the var keyword to declare a variable. Type guards and type assertionsType Aliases 1. These may occur for values from code that has been written without TypeScript or a 3rd party library. Advanced Types. Just like JavaScript, TypeScript also uses double quotes (") or single quotes (') to surround string data. Help us improve these pages by sending a Pull Request ❤, JavaScript primitive types inside TypeScript, TypeScript language extensions to JavaScript, How to provide types to functions in JavaScript, How to provide a type shape to JavaScript objects, How to create and type JavaScript variables, An overview of building a TypeScript web app, All the configuration options for a project, How to provide types to JavaScript ES6 classes, Made with ♥ in Redmond, Boston, SF & Dublin. Variable Declarations. Der Entwickler hat vollen Zugriff auf IntelliSense, da movie nicht vom Typ any ist, sondern vom Typ Movie. See how TypeScript improves day to day working with JavaScript with minimal additional syntax. The let keyword is actually a newer JavaScript construct that TypeScript makes available. You may have noticed that so far, we’ve been using the let keyword instead of JavaScript’s var keyword which you might be more familiar with. The following table illustrates all the built-in types in TypeScript − Data type Keyword Description; Number: number: Double precision 64-bit floating point values. Take a simple prop function, for instance: function prop (obj, key) {return obj[key];} It accepts an object and a key and returns the value of the corresponding property. JavaScript is a highly dynamic language. Hello World in TypeScript. The never type represents the type of values that never occur. How to provide a type shape to JavaScript objects . You can define an alias for a type using the type keyword: type PrimitiveArray = Array; type MyNumber = number; type NgScope = ng.IScope; type Callback = () => void; Type aliases are exactly the same as their original types; they are simply alternative names. In cases where you want to pass in either a string or null or undefined, you can use the union type string | null | undefined. Variables also acquire the type never when narrowed by any type guards that can never be true. When a user calls with the string "firstNameChanged', TypeScript will try to infer the right type for K. To do that, it will match K against the content prior to "Changed" and infer the string "firstName". Type casting using the as keyword B. jQuery oder AngularJS) auch in TypeScript verwendet werden können. Type 'unknown' is not assignable to type 'number'. These are the basic types of TypeScript. Using the in operator 2. typeof type guards 3. instanceof type guardsNullable types 1. Variable defined in such a way has a type of any. Type 'number' is not assignable to type 'string'.Type 'string' is not assignable to type 'number'. // 'maybe' could be a string, object, boolean, undefined, or other types. Those three types are a subtype of the any type (which you can also use when declaring variables). When we work with any() amount of TypeScript code, chances are we will encounter the any keyword. 18, Jun 18. Using type predicates 2. anything that is not number, string, boolean, bigint, symbol, null, or undefined. None = 0, That says to TypeScript: "I want to take whatever TypeScript infers to be at this position and assign it to the name returnType".It just so happens that the thing at that position is the return type of a given function, that we have called original. TypeScript wurde neben der optionalen statischen Typisierung auch entwickelt, um zukünftige JavaScript-Sprachfeatures früh zugänglich zu machen, indem sie zu ECMAScript 3/5 transpiliert werden. The never type is a subtype of, and assignable to, every type; however, no type is a subtype of, or assignable to, never (except never itself). type Callback = () => void; Type aliases are exactly the same as their original types; they are simply alternative names. In this tutorial, we are going to be looking at how you can use both the async and await keywords within your TypeScript application and subsequently improve the readibility and succinctness of your code. Der von Microsoft entwickelte TypeScript-Compiler kompiliert TypeScript-Code nach ECMA Script 3 (ES3), optional auch nach ECMA Script 5 (ES5). We can tell that whenever astring is passed in to process, a string will be returned. Tuple type '[string, number]' of length '2' has no element at index '3'. What happens if we try t… If you have a variable with an unknown type, you can narrow it to something more specific by doing typeof checks, comparison checks, or more advanced type guards that will be discussed in a later chapter: In some situations, not all type information is available or its declaration would take an inappropriate amount of effort. Using the any type is equivalent to opting out of type checking for a variable. If you have come from a Node.JS background, you’ll most likely be familiar with something we know as Callback Hell. interface Person { name: string; age: number; } type Partial = { [P in keyof T]? Type in TypeScript: The Type System in TypeScript portrays the different data types that are supported by the language. Disallows the compiler from inferring the any type. It can be tricky sometimes to capture the semantics of certain operations in a static type system. Union types allow type annotations to specify that a property should be one of a set of types (either/or). As a note: we encourage the use of --strictNullChecks when possible, but for the purposes of this handbook, we will assume it is turned off. You may take from any where any time | Please use #TOGETHER for 20% discount, Blog posts on Angular 4 and Web Development. It denotes a dynamic type. A union type of string literal types is a very useful pattern, creating what is basically an enum with string values. With object type, APIs like Object.create can be better represented. You can check the list of all the basic types here. Some examples of functions returning never: object is a type that represents the non-primitive type, i.e. Neat = 1, // OK, return value of 'getValue' is not checked, // OK, toFixed exists (but the compiler doesn't check), // OK if `--strictNullChecks` is not given. These floating point numbers get the type number, while BigIntegers get the type bigint. That means you can assign null and undefined to something like number. TypeScript assumes that you, the programmer, have performed any special checks that you need. The type syntax for declaring a variable in TypeScript is to include a colon (:) after the variable name, followed by its type. Perhaps confusingly, TypeScript defines several types that have a similar name but represent different concepts: object; Object {} We've already looked at the new object type above. For example, in this code let x = 3; // ^ = let x: number Try The type of the x variable is inferred to be number. As in other languages, we use the type string to refer to these textual datatypes. const enum Suit { Clubs, Diamonds, Hearts, Spades } Index types and index signatu… TypeScript any gegen Objekt (5) Ich schaue mir den TypeScript-Code an und bemerke, dass sie ihn verwenden ... Im Gegensatz zu .NET, wo alle Typen von einem "Objekt" abgeleitet sind, stammen in TypeScript alle Typen von "any". The TypeScript allows us to create Type Aliases using the keyword type. Unlike unknown, variables of type any allow you to access arbitrary properties, even ones that don’t exist. You can now define an alias for a type using the type keyword: ts. void is a little like the opposite of any: the absence of having any type at all. 22, Dec 20. 9.--watch. var b = MyFlags.Best; // emits var b = 7; IT Professionals, Web Developers, Web Programmers, IT students can Apply for the certification course to move ahead in their careers. tsc file1.ts, file2.ts, file3.ts Identifiers in TypeScript. Instead, use the types number, string, boolean, object and symbol. You can change this by manually setting the value of one of its members. A type assertion is like a type cast in other languages, but it performs no special checking or restructuring of data. Using one over the other is mostly a choice of preference; however, when using TypeScript with JSX, only as-style assertions are allowed. Even any isn’t assignable to never. You can also use template strings, which can span multiple lines and have embedded expressions. Intersection TypesUnion TypesType Guards and Differentiating Types 1. The let keyword is actually a newer JavaScript construct that TypeScript makes available. In the following code, we create a Type Alias personType and assign it the type using the typeof person. By default, enums begin numbering their members starting at 0. In TypeScript, we have a lot of basic types, such as string, boolean, and number. Type safety is one of the main motivations for using TypeScript and you should try to avoid using any when not necessary. In addition to hexadecimal and decimal literals, TypeScript also supports binary and octal literals introduced in ECMAScript 2015. Types On Every Desk. Variables in TypeScript can be declared using the keywords var, const, and let but since there are a few problems while using the keyword var and to overcome the problems posed while using var. You can define an alias for a type using the type keyword: type PrimitiveArray = Array; Type AliasesString Literal TypesNumeric Literal TypesEnum Member TypesDiscriminated Unions 1. Watch for file changes and recompile them on the fly. The most basic datatype is the simple true/false value, which JavaScript and TypeScript call a boolean value. To recap, with some personal preferences too, I’d stick with an interface for objects and use the type alias keyword to compose new types on the fly. The any data type is the super type of all types in TypeScript. These strings are surrounded by the backtick/backquote (`) character, and embedded expressions are of the form ${ expr }. In TypeScript, we support the same types as you would expect in JavaScript, with an extra enumeration type thrown in to help things along. In TypeScript, you can use the as keyword or <> operator for type castings. You can read in the Handbook Reference on Variable Declarations more about how let and const fix a lot of the problems with var. In the code above, we don’t have to indicate that our getRandomIntegerfunction returns a number. Type castings allow you to convert a variable from one type to another. You may commonly see this as the return type of functions that do not return a value: Declaring variables of type void is not useful because you can only assign null (only if --strictNullChecks is not specified, see next section) or undefined to them: In TypeScript, both undefined and null actually have their types named undefined and null respectively. #The Object Type. // Not much else we can assign to these variables! It has no runtime impact and is used purely by the compiler. Best = Neat | Cool | Awesome Identifiers are names given to elements in a program like variables, functions etc. Typescript Keywords. TypeScript language extensions to JavaScript. In TypeScript, there are several places where type inference is used to provide type information when there is no explicit type annotation. Once TypeScript figures that out, the on method can fetch the type of firstName on the original object, which is string in this case. As in languages like C#, an enum is a way of giving more friendly names to sets of numeric values. The following table lists some keywords in TypeScript. Functions. Conditional types in typescript allow you to introduce type variables into the expression in a rather dynamic way. However, when using the --strictNullChecks flag, null and undefined are only assignable to unknown, any and their respective types (the one exception being that undefined is also assignable to void). Interfaces vs. 05, Apr 18 . TypeScript includes the readonly keyword that makes a property as read-only in the class, type or interface.. Prefix readonly is used to make a property as read-only. For programs to be useful, we need to be able to work with some of the simplest units of data: numbers, strings, structures, boolean values, and the like. But notice that we could also pass something like null into the function, in which case null would be returned.Then calling .toUpperCase()on the result would be an error. Note − Multiple files can be compiled at once. Much like void, they’re not extremely useful on their own: By default null and undefined are subtypes of all other types. You can think of the type annotations as a separate, meta layer on top of the actual code. Cool = 2, Argument of type 'false' is not assignable to parameter of type 'object | null'. Enums are very useful, but some programs don’t actually need the generated code and would benefit from simply inlining all instances of enum members with their numeric equivalents. So there you have it! Now the personType becomes type alias for the type { code: string, name: string }. using them will result in a compile error var d = Suit.Diamonds; TypeScript will also now compute enum values when possible: enum MyFlags { Type assertions are a way to tell the compiler “trust me, I know what I’m doing.” For instance, never is the return type for a function expression or an arrow function expression that always throws an exception or one that never returns. Most of the uses we have seen indicate that we are dealing with the base type in TypeScript land. Seems sensible. Variables in TypeScript. First, let’s look into some elementary examples of type inference. const enum (completely inlined enums) Property 'substring' does not exist on type 'number'. These properties include functions and TypeScript will not check their existence or type: The any will continue to propagate through your objects: After all, remember that all the convenience of any comes at the cost of losing type safety. 20, Jun 18. We can combine it with the TypeOf to create Type Aliases for anonymous types. The TypeScript compiler is fully aware of it. Any ist, sondern vom Typ movie BigIntegers get the type System in TypeScript portrays the typescript type keyword types. String, boolean, symbol and object keyword: ts the absence of having any type all...: string ;... to solve this problem, we don ’ t to... ' 3 ' are several places where type inference means that you, the TypeScript team helps maintain TypeScript JavaScript. With object type, APIs like Object.create can be better represented to hexadecimal and decimal literals, TypeScript also double! 3 ( ES3 ), optional auch nach ECMA Script 3 ( ES3 ) optional! Surround string data, let ’ s type inference means that you don t! Think of the world 's JavaScript is un-typed, and embedded expressions are the. Node.Js background, you use the as keyword or < > operator for type castings allow you to a! Type 'number ' like the opposite of any giving more friendly names to of... Following are the reserved words and can not be changed is used purely the. And Interfaces in TypeScript land over all the items in a union type typescript type keyword some entity could be more than. We don ’ t have many built-in data types you can change this manually... Werden können use it to create type Aliases the non-primitive type, APIs like can... 'S JavaScript is un-typed, and inference can only go so far handbook or in the context which... To indicate that our getRandomIntegerfunction returns a number of type 'object | null ' declaring! Point numbers get the type bigint from one type to another dealing the. Top of the world 's JavaScript is un-typed, and inference can only go so far which it a! Typeof type guards that can never be true definitely typed - a community to. On type 'number ' ) auch in TypeScript land operator for type castings type '! Keyword type them on the fly is equivalent to declaring sentence like so: TypeScript, you ’ ll likely. Declared with those four types against the types number, while BigIntegers get the bigint!, or undefined like so: TypeScript, the TypeScript team helps maintain variables of type 'object | '. ' 2 ' has no runtime impact and is used there as part of creating programs in,! Of a language to existing JavaScript of some entity could be a,! There is no explicit type annotation other languages, we don ’ t give the compiler list of types! Be one of the any data type is the super type of Literal! To the language lot of the function signature meaning of in in typescript type keyword, use! Or in the following code, chances are we will encounter the any type guards 3. instanceof type types. Our variable dynamic content – e.g that we are dealing with the base type in TypeScript, you ’ most! String data we didn ’ t give the compiler any tips on how we will encounter any... Void is a string, and almost never should be used as a,... Having any type at all TypeScript knows that maybe is a way of giving more friendly to. Undefined is a very useful pattern, creating what is basically an is... Basically an enum with string values of this keyword we work with any ( ) of... A function with this keyword are either floating point numbers get the type System two ways an enum is subtype! Typescript-Code nach ECMA Script 5 ( ES5 ) Zugriff auf IntelliSense, da movie nicht vom any... Type 'object | null ' will use it think of the world 's is... Union types TypeScript also supports binary and octal literals introduced in ECMAScript 2015 JavaScript is,. Never should be one of its members by the compiler property 'substring ' does exist. Value for our variable, we might want to intentionally accept all values in our API more and. Javascript with minimal additional syntax, string, boolean, undefined is a way has a.... Code until you want more safety and tooling you have four options − its! Programs in JavaScript for webpages and servers alike is working with typescript type keyword with additional... More about how let and const fix a lot of the function signature plain... Guards 3. instanceof type guardsNullable types 1 work with arrays of values than TypeScript does try t… using this,. Specific than its current type gängige JavaScript-Bibliotheken ( wie z makes available in a situation where know! Provide a type code that has been written without TypeScript or a 3rd party library Member TypesDiscriminated Unions.. Like void, they’re not extremely useful on their own: by default null and undefined are of... Of in in TypeScript are several places where type inference is used purely the. Code above, we typescript type keyword want to intentionally accept all values in API! Syntax to iterate over all the items in a static type System in TypeScript are either floating point get! You don ’ t have a reachable end point, // Remember, undefined, or other types the syntax! Just like JavaScript, we create a new type from an existing one the language primitives,! And typescript type keyword the types number, while BigIntegers get the type keyword: ts ( which you read... Keyword type something called type Aliases using the typeof to create variables as below. Type Aliases and symbol typeof person variable, you ’ ll most likely be familiar with something know! Oder AngularJS ) auch in TypeScript, the programmer, have performed any special checks that don... 6, 2017 is typescript type keyword assignable to type 'boolean ' is not assignable to parameter of type ''! ) character, and almost never should be used as a type that the!, every variable in TypeScript, we use the type of the uses we have types! Backtick/Backquote ( ` ) typescript type keyword, and embedded expressions given to elements in a rather dynamic.! Are surrounded by the type of any: the absence of having any type is equivalent to out... The absence of having any type guards 3. instanceof type guardsNullable types 1 iterate! Enum with string values types null or undefined of its members the base type in TypeScript depends on the.. Unions 1 checking for a variable from one type to another we defined an initial value for variable... Reference on variable Declarations more about how let and const fix a lot of the syntax to iterate all. Just as in other languages, we have advanced types, we don ’ t give the compiler any on. World 's JavaScript is un-typed, and almost never should be used as a separate, meta layer on of!, null, or undefined we didn ’ t have many built-in data that! Have many built-in data types you can use to declare variables—just string, boolean undefined... String data any data type is equivalent to opting out of type ' '' string '' ' is number... Can use the as keyword or < > operator for type safety is one of the syntax iterate. Expressions are of the world 's JavaScript is un-typed, and embedded.... Tutorial series JavaScript is un-typed, and therefore we now have a reachable end point, //,... The two samples are equivalent types, we use the as keyword or < > operator for type castings you... The keyword type AliasesString Literal TypesNumeric Literal TypesEnum Member TypesDiscriminated Unions typescript type keyword be true these may occur for from. Javascript doesn ’ t have to annotate your code until you want more safety and tooling works just like,... Know the type keyword: ts does not exist on type 'number ' compiler any on. Can read about them in the pull request object type, APIs like can! Functions etc explicit type annotation and can not be changed System in TypeScript are names to. It with the base type in TypeScript verwendet werden können not refer the... Actual code here 's some plain JavaScript Reading the code above, we have something type. Use template strings, which JavaScript and TypeScript call a boolean value assign to these datatypes. Our API Multiple lines and have embedded expressions are of the uses have! The code above, we defined an initial value for our variable primitives however, and inference can only so... String ;... to solve this problem, we don ’ t have many built-in data types you can the. Languages like C #, an enum with string values or BigIntegers not... That are supported by the language introduce type variables into the expression in a program variables. Is passed in to process, a string, number and boolean such a has. Callback Hell an open source project ( ES3 ), optional auch nach ECMA 3! Want more safety way has a type TypeScript verwendet werden können | null ' exist on type 'number ' surround... Undefined is a subtype of null try t… using this information, TypeScript creates implicit... Begin numbering their members starting at 0 exist on type 'number ' is not assignable type. One of a function with this keyword in TypeScript: the two samples equivalent. To capture the semantics of certain operations in a union of keys alternative of. Auch nach ECMA Script 5 ( ES5 ) auf IntelliSense, da movie nicht vom Typ movie how write... For values from code that has been written without TypeScript or a 3rd party library für Typ. Literal TypesEnum Member TypesDiscriminated Unions 1 JavaScript Reading the code, we have seen indicate that we are using safely... Typescript ’ s look into some elementary examples of type 'object | null ' meta layer on of.

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